Singapore: Pearson Education South Asia Raymond Hickey. Historical Particularism Historical Particularism claims that each society has its own unique historical development and must be understood based on its own specific cultural and environmental context, especially its historical process. It also called for an end to ethnocentrism in the field of anthropology and instead advocated for the anthropologists to use ethnological fieldwork to gather sound evidence that can be used when analyzing culture. Franz Boaz viewed culture as a set of customs, social institutions and beliefs that characterized any particular society and were defined by the environmental conditions and other historical events. Inventory 70,000 Sales Revenue 70,000 The historical cost principle indicates that assets and liabilities are accounted for on the basis of cost. The historical cost is therefore the cost at the time the company or entity completed the transaction. Accounting conventions seem to prefer objective, verifiable lies to subjective truths! Although, they performed differently in exams and their marks were different, that does not make them superior to each other.
He developed the method of participant observation as a basic research strategy of ethnographic fieldwork. In the Old and New Worlds, this atomistic understanding of culture led to the majority of spatial temporal designations i. In the Americas where archaeologists were by and large derived from immigrant populations rather than indigenous Native Americans communities, nationalist archaeologies were less pronounced. Archaeologists saw their science as an historical one that consisted of identifying, tracking, and explaining these configurations of traits. He held individuals to be very important as they formed the basic component of the society.
The discipline of anthropology really arose out of Europe, and many of the earliest writings in cultural anthropology focused on trying to make sense of the cultures of distant places. It is based on a stable measuring assumption of a unit. It can have applications in many different ways in society, including areas like class struggle and economic development. Examples Let's take a few examples to better illustrate how this works. Cultural relativism suggests that we cannot judge the values or beliefs of one culture against another. Among the factors, economic, geographic, political and social, which combined to bring about the decline of the Hanseatic League, none was probably more influential than the absence of a German political power comparable in unity and energy with those of France and England, which could quell particularism at home, and abroad maintain in its vigour the trade which these towns had developed and defended with their imperfect union. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol.
Historical Particualrists showed that this labeling is based on insufficient evidence and claimed that societies cannot be ranked by the value judgment of researchers. For example, Frantz Boas saw each individual as the basic component of a society. This is because this school of thought has not favored the evaluation of one culture against another. Also, why are cross-cultural comparisons unreliable? Later critics of this approach have referred to it as the water flow model of culture. Merits and demerits of this method are as follows.
The Historical Particularists valued fieldwork and history as critical methods of cultural analysis. It advocated for ethnographic fieldwork in order to collect first hand cultural data from which information is gained to help describe particular cultures. . He criticized the comparative method employed by evolutionists. It is, therefore, important to appreciate every society and treat them differently from any other society. Attention or adherence to or exclusive interest in one's own special interests, party, or state; individual, partizan, or national exclusiveness. Boas argued that this ordering is merely an assumption because there is no historical evidence or way to demonstrate its validity.
Particularism is a concept forwarded by Fons Trompenaars, a Dutch author. Later on, comparative typological linguistics has emerged. He believed that there should be collection of data before any theories are formulated. She is an American author of crime fiction and romance novels. According to him, cultural similarities were only due to Diffusion of traits and any primary cause must be empirically established.
Dialectic, Dialectical materialism, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 1041 Words 3 Pages Discount the value somewhat to reflect the diminished value of being a minority interest holder. Swadesh claims that the language of today divided itself from one source during the Paleolithic stage. For example, Unilineal Evolution claims that matrilineal kin systems preceded patrilineal kin systems and that religions based on animism developed before polytheistic religions. He also analyzed the impact of the changing social relations and economic. He noted that culture dwells on the past events. It argued that each society is a collective representation of its unique historical past. Marxian materialism Hegel treated the self-consciousness.
Instead of trying to find similarities and differences between two cultures, we should try and understand the aspects of each of them in depth. In spite of the fact that he was mentored by Boas, Kroeber disagreed with him in that while Boas emphasized much on the gathering and organizing of data showing much concern on the causal process and their description abstract phenomena , on the other hand Kroeber was concerned with concrete phenomena and their development over time something that his mentor did not put much emphasis on www. Contract, Cross-cultural communication, Particularism 705 Words 3 Pages globalization, more businesses are expanding throughout the world and culture must be taken into consideration, most especially when you communicate and do business with people of different nationalities. All groups have their own intended path and historical particularism totally went against the grain in anthropology up until the point that it was introduced. The first advantage of this concept is that there is objective evidence to support the historical cost such as invoices, so it is the most appropriate cost to be used in the. Let's say an anthropologist was looking to understand the tradition of Vodou among Haitian immigrants in New York City.
To explain these patterns, interpretive modeling turned to discussions of diffusion, innovation, and migration. The amount that a company should record assets and liabilities are at the historical cost principle. Historical Particularism Franz Boas did his fieldwork among Eskimos of the Baffin Island. This meant that detailed studies had to be done on cultures in their own terms. These major figures include: Alfred Kroeber, Ruth Benedict, Robert Lowie, Margaret Mead, Edward Sapir and Paul Radin. Early Cultural Anthropology What is culture? Historical particularism and relationship to other schools of thought Historical particularism developed as an alternative approach to the socio-cultural theories that were proposed by both evolutionists and diffusionists and were judged by this school as being unprovable. Functionalism concentrated all of its resources into describing the material, psychological, physical, and social structures of a civilization.